17/04/2018

11:19

Como a dieta pode alterar a concentração de proteína no leite?

Fonte: Milkpoint

Alterações na nutrição das vacas podem contribuir de forma modesta para aumentar o teor de proteína presente no leite – em geral, o incremento gerado pela dieta varia de 0,1% a 0,4%, somente. Um fator que explica essa pequena variação é o fato de que, ao tentar elevar a proteína no leite, também estimulamos o aumento da produção, o que pode diluir o teor de proteína. Ainda assim, pensando na rentabilidade no negócio, todo ganho é importante.

O aumento no nível de proteína do leite pode ser alcançado de duas formas. A principal é o fornecimento de uma dieta equilibrada em energia (carboidratos) e proteína, gerando um crescimento ideal dos microrganismos presentes no rúmen da vaca. Os microrganismos, por sua vez, produzem os aminoácidos – componentes fundamentais da proteína presente na glândula mamária do animal. Esse resultado pode ser alcançado fornecendo aos animais quantidades equilibradas de milho moído (energia) e farelo de soja (proteína), por exemplo.

Outra forma de alterar a proteína do leite é adicionar à dieta fontes de ureia combinadas a fontes de energia, pois os microrganismos do rúmen são capazes de convertê-la em proteína. No entanto, é importante destacar que quando consumida em quantidades inadequadas e em curto período de tempo, a ureia apresenta riscos à saúde da vaca, podendo levar à morte do animal. Para animais não adaptados, o consumo de 45 a 50 gramas por dia de ureia para cada 100 kg de peso vivo pode ser fatal. Já animais adaptados toleram doses duas a três vezes mais no mesmo período de tempo. Vale lembrar que a ureia deve sempre ser fornecida juntamente com alimentos concentrados para otimizar a produção de proteína e evitar quaisquer problemas de saúde.

Por fim, outra maneira de aumentar a proteína no leite está em ampliar os níveis de proteína e aminoácidos que passam intactos na digestão ruminal e são absorvidos diretamente no intestino da vaca. Esses nutrientes têm como destino a glândula mamária e, consequentemente, se transformam em proteína no leite. Para contribuir com esse processo, existem no mercado fontes de proteína protegida da digestão ruminal, que podem ser agregadas à dieta dos animais.

Como precisamos uma dieta equilibrada para alcançar níveis ideais de proteína, recomenda-se observar se os valores de nitrogênio ureico do leite (NUL) estão em níveis adequados – o que pode ser feito a partir da análise de uma amostra do leite cru. A ureia no leite é um indicador do equilíbrio do sistema ruminal, de forma que concentrações elevadas servem como alerta para desequilíbrios entre proteína e carboidratos. De forma geral, um animal com dieta balanceada em energia e proteína é capaz de produzir leite com teor de proteína maior que 3,3%, apresentando NUL entre 10 a 14 mg/dL.

Vale enfatizar que, apesar de todos os esforços para tentar aumentar os níveis que proteína no leite, essa é uma tarefa bastante difícil, pois diversos outros fatores influenciam esse resultado – efeitos genéticos, aspectos ambientais, número de parições, estágio da lactação, mastite e nutrição, entre outros. Por isso, é importante se manter atento à nutrição e também a todos eles.

 

Maximiliano H. O. Pasetti
Pesquisador da Clínica do Leite. Zootecnista formado pela Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Mestre e Doutorando em Ciência Animal e Pastagens– ESALQ/USP

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